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Evolving from early Krell players, which took in the push-ups and the 65-note era, the Artemis actions replaced the cumbersome four-tier Krell actions, most of which screwed on as individual units. Early Krell stacks were undoubtedly the largest player action to be installed in an upright piano, so bulky that it filled up the entire bottom of the piano.
All Artemis stacks are three-tier with valve movement horizontally. The only guide for centering the valve was a leather or zephir skin tab inserted from between the wooden valve button and the valve facing, which allowed the valve to hang within the valve well.
The player actions were of poor design from a technical or performance standpoint. On the earlier type of player action known as the "Steger Natural Player", pneumatics faced the front with the pouch board facing the piano action, with a row of hinged levers to engage at the bottom of the piano abstract. These hinged levers ran under the player stack and connected by poppet wires, up to the fingers on the three rows of downward pushing pneumatics. On the later type of Artemis, the primary valves were eliminated, and the stack turned 180 degrees, then with the pneumatics at the rear pushing up through a guide rail by means of poppet wires for the bottom two rows and a metal finger for the top row, which rested directly on this guide rail; these all align to the whippen of the piano action. On this type, each pneumatic individually screwed on over the individual square valve plates, now aluminum instead of wood. This allowed any individual pneumatic or valve to be removed without disturbing any other parts. The valve could then be flipped out of the valve well with the centering tab still attached, and the length of valve stem could be regulated.
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