116 Player Piano Technical Reprints
and Player Piano Service Manuals
Below is a listing of the service manuals and technical manuals that are available at Player-Care. We also offer a number of tubing diagrams and test rolls.
Selecting the Correct Manual - Click Here
To place your order - Click Here!!
A.B. Chase 'Artistano' (B-56): $15.00 (Only Available in PDF Format)
A Technical Treatise on the A.B. Chase 'Artistano' player action for Tuners and Repairmen. Reprint of the 1909 manual. Complete with Illustrated Parts Breakdown. Thirty Pages, 8-1/2" X 5-1/2".
Aeolian Company Player System (1920's Version)
This listing is provided for information only. From the very early 1900's until around 1932, the Aeolian Company made thousands of player pianos with a number of different types of player systems. These player pianos should not be confused with the "modern" players made by the Aeolian Corporation from the early 1960's to 1986 when they closed. Unfortunately, the Aeolian Company only produced manuals for their complex player system called the "Duo-Art". These manuals are available below.
Aeolian Owners Manual (Modern) (A-44): $12.95 (Only Available in PDF Format)
Also called the "Information and Instruction for Duo/Art"
Owners Manual for the 'modern' 64-note and 88-note Aeolian player piano made between 1960 and 1986 (when they closed). While this manual was written for their Dou/Art player piano (not to be confused with 'Dou-Art', which is a reproducing player mechanism), the information is applicable to their other models, i.e., Pianola, Cabaret, Sting, Sting II, Keepsake, and Musette. Basically, this manual tells the user how to operate the player. It also includes basic information about how the player action works and where to look in the Aeolian Service Manual (see below) if there are certain problems. The PDF file is suitable for printing on 8-1/2" x 11" paper.
Aeolian Service Manual (Modern) (B-44): $15.00 (Only Available in PDF Format)
Also called the "Service Manual for the 64-note and 88-note Standard Pneumatic Action Player-Piano"
Service Manual for 'modern' 64-note and 88-note Aeolian (Standard) player actions made between 1960 and 1986 (when they closed). These are the players with the interchangeable plastic block valves. The trade-names found on pianos which this manual covers are: Pianola, Dou/Art, Cabaret, Sting, Sting II, Keepsake, and Musette. 56 pages, explains theory of operation, tubing diagrams, electrical wiring, parts lists, and basic trouble-shooting guide (105 possible problems and solutions). The PDF file is suitable for printing on 8-1/2" x 11" paper and contains annotated color pictures which show all of the parts in the upper half of the piano.
Aeolian: 'How To Play The Piano With The Pianola' (copyright 1903) (R-106): $9.25
(PDF format only)
This reference was written to show owners how to operate the then 'very new' roll-up or push-up player device called the "Pianola". It goes into great detail to explain how to effectively use the various controls to produce life-like music from a music roll. Scanned at 600 DPI. This is not a technical manual. It is about operating the Pianola Roll-Up Unit.
American Player Action Service Manual (B-63p): $17.50 (PDF format)
One of the best service manuals ever produced in the 1920's. Highly illustrated, half-tone photos are the best example of retouch art-work ever seen. Complete illustrated parts breakdown. Shows everything from the front and the back. Complete Theory of Operation, adjustments, 'Don'ts', and Pointers. Scanned at 600 DPI. Even if you don't need this manual, you'll appreciate the quality of the pictures and the thoroughness of the explanations.
Amphion Accessible Player Action (C-17): $19.00
The Amphion Accessible player action. This covers the later pedal pump, non-reproducing player actions with the individual clamp-on valve blocks. "What it is - How it Works - Why it excels - How to care for it". Also available in PDF format for $12.00. Specify 'PDF' when ordering.
Amphion Player Action (Tubing) (R-4): $9.50
The Tubing Chart for the Amphion. 11" X 17", dated 6/10/24. Great Shop Chart. Suitable for framing.
Amphion Collection (A-COL): $24.95
This data DVD contains everything I've collected about the Amphion player system. Included are all of the Patents I could find, the Amphion Accessible Player Action manual (C-17), the Amphion Player Action Tubing Diagram (R-4), and numerous pictures of the various systems, from the earliest to the most common. It was compiled because there are quite a few variations of the system and the manual only covers the later version. As I get more information about the system, it will be added to the DVD.
Model 'A' Ampico Rebuilding (T-3): $16.75
Vestal Press Technical Series No. 3, "How To Rebuild The Model A Ampico" by David L. Saul. A printed 13-page treatise covering all of the components in the Ampico A system. An excellent 'How To' reference.
For DVD's about Rebuilding the Ampico, click here.
Model 'A' Ampico Tubing Chart (Rev. 1990) (C-6): $9.75 (PDF file Only)
The tubing chart for the Model 'A' Ampico grand (architect-type drawing). Original diagram measured 21-1/2" X 25". Original Drawing from 1925. Revised by Player Piano Co. in May, 1990. High resolution PDF file suitable for printing on large paper. While the placement of the parts is different in the Ampico upright, the tubing is the same. (Also known as diagram 280-C from the Amphion Player Piano Co.)
Model 'A' Ampico Tubing Chart (Rev. 1970) (C-6a): $12.50
Available in PDF Format only. Also see: Ampico 'A' References DVD
The tubing chart for the Model 'A' Ampico grand (architect-type drawing). Originally measured 22" X 25". Original Drawing from 1925. Revised by D. Lavric in 1970. More detailed and better referenced than the '1990' revision. While the placement of the parts is different in the Ampico upright, the tubing is the same.
Ampico 'A' Service Manual (1919 w/1920 Supplement) (C-11p): $16.50
Now available in PDF Format only. Also see: Ampico 'A' References DVD
This is the first basic service manual with 70 pages. For systems with the vertically-inclined 'loudening and re-regulator' pneumatics on the expression device. (The improved system, with the individual horizontally-inclined 'spring and re-regulator' pneumatics is covered in the Inspectors Reference Book (1923).) Very detailed, well referenced, complete Trouble-Shooting Guide/w possible problems and solutions. Issued by the Ampico Engineering Department.
For DVD's about Rebuilding the Ampico, click here.
Playing and Caring for the Ampico (AMP-1): $8.00
Now available in PDF Format only. Also see: Ampico 'A' References DVD
This 8-page booklet was most likely given to those who bought a piano with the Ampico system. It explains the various controls and how they are effectively used. It also talks about simple things the owner can do to insure that the mechanism continues to perform well.
For DVD's about Rebuilding the Ampico, click here.
Ampico 'A' Test Roll (with Instructions Printed On The Roll) (A-TR): $38.50< (Temporarily Out of Stock)
A necessary tool for anyone who is rebuilding an Ampico "A" Reproducing System. The roll tests every aspect of the system, including (but not limited to), note repetition, all expression levels, crescendo and decrescendo operation, sustain pedal, and hammer rail lift (or action shift).
Ampico 'B' Test Roll (with Instructions Printed On The Roll) (B-TR): $38.75
(Temporarily Out of Stock)
A necessary tool for anyone who is rebuilding an Ampico "B" Reproducing System. The roll tests every aspect of the system, including (but not limited to), note repetition, all expression levels, crescendo and decrescendo operation, sustain pedal, and hammer rail lift (or action shift). Maximum shipping charge is $16.00 (within US). Overseas $62.60 (to most countries)
Ampico 'B' Note Compensation Test Roll (with Instructions Printed On The Roll) (B-NCTR): $38.75
A necessary tool for anyone who is rebuilding an Ampico "B" Reproducing System. The roll tests each note for uniformity and explains how to make the compensations necessary to get all of the notes playing evenly. Ships in USPS Large Flat-Rate Box for $18.75 (within US). Overseas $62.60 (to most countries)
Ampico 'A' Inspectors Reference Booklet (1923) (C-1): $20.50
The 1923 Inspector Reference Book, covers all of the devices found in the upright models and the Model 'A' grands. This is the most common of the Ampico Reproducing systems. Test Roll instructions are on pages 3-5. Written for the "purpose of giving the inspectors a thorough understanding of the working principles of the AMPICO". 19 pages, 8-1/2" x 11". The manual does not contain a complete tubing diagram. For the DVD "How the Ampico Really Works" by Craig Brougher, click here.
Ampico 'A' Inspectors Reference Booklet (1923) (C-1p): $9.75 (PDF Format)
The 1923 Inspector Reference Book, covering the upright models. This is the most common of the Ampico Reproducing systems. All of the devices shown in this manual are identical to those found in the Model A grand piano. Test Roll instructions are on pages 3-5. Written for the "purpose of giving the inspectors a thorough understanding of the working principles of the AMPICO". 19 pages, 7.9" x 10.9". The manual does not contain a complete tubing diagram. The grayscale graphics in this manual are very impressive, even at 400% magnification!!
Ampico 'Model 'B' Reproducing Action (1929 Service Manual) (C-2): $27.20
The 1929 Service Manual is applicable to grands only, with the 100 hole tracker bar and the electric motor turning the music roll. Complete with the Principles of Operation and location of all Adjustments. Well referenced. 8-1/2" X 11", 56 pages.
Ampico 'Model 'B' Reproducing Action (1929 Service Manual) (C-2p): $19.75 (PDF format)
The 1929 Service Manual is applicable to grands only, with the 100 hole tracker bar and the electric motor turning the music roll. Complete with the Principles of Operation and location of all Adjustments. Well referenced. 8-1/2" X 11", 56 pages.
Ampico 'Model 'B' Reproducing Piano
(An Illustrated Rebuilding Guide - By David L. Saul) (D-3p): $19.95 (PDF Format)
This is the 100 page reference book that was originally published by Vestal Press in 1982. It covers every aspect of rebuilding the Ampico Model 'B'. Very well written and well indexed. The gray-scale graphics in this reference are excellent, and easily as good (and in cases a shade better) as those in the original 1982 version. Only available in PDF format (suitable for printing).
Ampico 'A' Tubing Diagram (235-C) (C-12): $9.00
Just what the name says, showing Distribution Block, Governor and basic Upper Action Mechanism. 8-1/2" x 11".
Ampico 'A' Upright (C-31): $20.00
Ampico Upright showing the parts made by Autopiano, which was prior to the Amphion made components. Five pages, 8-1/2" X 11".
Ampico Collection of Service Reprints (D-36): $19.95 (in PDF Format on a data DVD)
(The paper version is no longer available.)
Includes all of the service information on both the Model 'A' and Model 'B' that have been sold separately. Also includes the 12 page manual, 'How to Rebuild the Model 'A' Ampico, the Illustrated, 100 page reference; 'Rebuilding the Ampico B'), and the 1970 and 1990 Revisions of the Ampico 'A' Tubing Diagrams. Other 'extras' include the excellent articles by Craig Brougher concerning various aspects of the Ampico system and other references related to the Ampico system.
For DVD's about Rebuilding the Ampico A, click here.
Ampico 'A' References (A-REF): $24.95 (on Data DVD)
Includes all of the references ever produced for the Model 'A' (both upright and grand). Over 3 gigs of information. All of the reference manuals, diagrams, and technical articles, short videos, plus hundreds of pictures of various parts and components. There's not enough room here to explain everything that's on this DVD. Basically, it's everything I've collected in the past 45 years except the DVD's produced by Craig Brougher about the Ampico 'A'.
Ampico Foot-Pump (R-24): $12.00
Ampico Foot-Pump model. Reproduced from a 1920 blueprint. Shows the Expression Regulator, Crescendo Device, Expression Cut-Out, Action Cut-Out, Soft-Pedal Cut-Out, Auto Cut-Out,
Exhauster and inter-connecting tubing. 23" X 17-1/2"
Angelus Service Manual (B-62): $24.00
Shows pouch-pneumatic type and also briefly describes later the 'White' player action. Not the best graphics in the world, but they're legible.
Angelus Operator's Manual (in PDF format only) (R-107): $12.75
Called "Artistic Piano Playing by means of The Angelus", this 24-page booklet contains very thorough explanations of all the user controls. It also explains pedal technique and the musical terms that relate to musical expression. Excellent grey-scale graphics. Scanned at 600 dpi.
Angelus Reproducing Piano - It's Care and Adjustment (C-18): $18.50 (PDF file on CD)
Service manual showing the Simplex version of the Artrio reproducing system. Same basic parts as shown in Simplex Reproducing Player Action, but plays Artrio-Angelus recordings rather than Recordo rolls. Images for the PDF file were scanned at 600 dpi for maximum clarity. CD also include all of the files used to create the CD.
Apollo-Artecho-Celco: How to Test and Regulate (AAC): $19.00
These are the original AMR Publishing Co. references in a spiral bound format with heavy plastic covers which encase the front and back pages of the reference. Often referred to as the 'Art Echo' Reproducing system that was built by Amphion Co., the reference contains diagrams and explanations of the 17 control ports on the trackerbar, an 11" x 16" tubing diagram, and an 11" x 16" diagram showing three charts of the Crescendos and Intensities. Naturally, it also includes instructions for testing and regulating the mechanism, and diagrams of the Accent Valves and Manifold, the Cancel Valves and Expression Cut-Out, the Regulating Valve and Regulating Pneumatic, and the Crescendo Pneumatic, Crescendo Valve Box and Metering Pin. According to the information presented in the reference, "An identifying feature of the Art Echo system is the modulator lever, which is labeled NORMAL & SOFT."
Artrio-Angelus Reproducing Piano (C-19): $9.00
Upright model only, with the Angelus pouch-pneumatic stack.
Art-Apollo/Dynachord Service Manual (B-80p): $16.50
Available in PDF format
Dynachord Service Manual. Refer to p.306 'Player Piano Treasury'. This was an expression system built by Amphion. Although its tracker bar has 98 ports, it follows the same 96-hole system employed by Melville Clark's Art-Apollo. Eight pages, in PDF format, 38.5 MB.
Art-Apollo Tubing Diagram in PDF format (B-83): $9.00
Single page Tubing Diagram for an Art-Apollo player action, S/N 26808. For use with the Apollo-X Rolls. Drawn in May of 1977 by Player Piano Restoration Co., Toledo, OH. PDF format.
Artecho (Apollo) Chart of Artecho Upright (C-14): $14.95 (PDF format only)
Upright service and regulation sheet. To identify Artecho: count tracker bar holes. There are a total of 100, with only one elongated - the fourth one from the left. This reference has been totally reworked to remove damaged areas. To see an example of the old and new file, click here. The original size of the page was 22" x 22", and the new hign quality file can be used to faithfully reproduce the chart with excellent clarity on a sheet that's 36" x 36".
Artecho (Apollo) Chart of Artecho Grand (C-15): $11.00
Grand service and regulating procedures. Two sheets; 15" X 22" each. Suitable for wall hanging or framing. Very detailed. Includes Testing and Regulation information.
Auto De Luxe Expression Action (R-62): $18.00
The "Auto De Luxe Expression Action for Grand and Upright Pianos" -Using Recordo and Expression Rolls. Manufactured by The Auto Pneumatic Action Co. Basically, this manual simply describes the 'works in a drawer' reproducing mechanism. It is not a technical manual in the normal sense. Rather, it is more like an Owner's Manual. It does have a couple of good pictures that show views of the exposed drawer and the components in the grand and upright, but the components are not labeled. The manual does have some information about adjusting the Expression Regulator.
Autopiano Company (B-3): $26.00
Player Piano Pointers, Autopiano player action, produced by Auto Pneumatic Action Company (1917). 31 pages, 8-1/2" x 11". General information about the various devices in the player system. Basically, it's kind of a 'How To' manual for owners and technician/tuners alike. Excellent graphics and diagrams. What you see here is the actual size of the graphic in the manual. Click on the graphic to see the difference between what has been available for the past three decades and what's available now. Also available in PDF format for $15.00. A good compliment to this reference is B-42.
Autopiano Company (B-3p): $15.00 (PDF Format)
Exactly the same as the Autopiano manual explained above but in PDF format. Will be sent via email or made available for download.
Auto Pneumatic Action Co. 1910 (B-42): $18.50 (PDF Format)
Auto Pneumatic Action Co. 1910 Service Manual reprint showing combination 88 and 65 note tracker bar.
Baldwin (Manualo) Service Manual (B-50p): $16.50
This has to be one of the most extensive service manual ever issued by any player manufacturer. Although it came out in 1916, there were very few changes made during the entire production run of Baldwin player actions from 1912 through 1928. They were used exclusively in all Baldwin pedal-pump players: Ellington, Hamilton, Howard, Manualo, Modello, Monarch, and Sargent. Does not cover aspects of the piano action or workings of the 'piano'. It explains the workings of the player mechanism in exquisite detail. Over 200 hours were spent digitally cleaning, sharpening, and reformatting every page. Available in PDF format only (38MB).
Beckwith Service Manual (B-81): $20.50
A fairly good quality reprint on the player action. 20 pages, 5-1/2" X 8-1/2". Also available in a high-resolution color PDF format for $14.95. Significantly higher quality than the paper version. If interested, write to me from this link and mention the manual in the Comments Box -click here, and I will send you payment and download instructions. To view a picture from the file, click here.
Bush & Lane - Cecilian (B-82p): $15.00 (PDF Format Only)
Bush & Lane Service Manual for Cecilian player action using all metal construction of unit valve. 28 pgs. Used exclusively in the Cecilian and Victor player pianos. Also found in the Farrand player pianos. The mechanism is considered "uncommon" and very difficult to rebuild. As Art Reblitz puts it, "As in modern Aeolian player pianos, the individual parts were designed to be replaced, not repaired." "Description of Construction and Accessibility of the Mechanism Showing How Individual Parts Can Be Replaced and Adjustments Made". Only available in PDF Format (17MB), suitable for printing. Scanned at 600 DPI (grayscale).
Cable-made Reproducing Pianos (B-33): $20.50
"How to Care For and Adjust" the Cable-made Reproducing Piano. Includes information about the Upright Euphona Reproducing Inner-Player and Upright Cable Reproducing Inner-Player as well as the Grand Cable Reproducing piano and the Grand Conover Reproducing piano. This is the player system with a 98-hole trackerbar, known as the Style PW Reproducer. This system accommodated regular 88-note rolls and 'Recordo' Reproducing rolls. This booklet does not cover construction or principles of operation. However, it does cover operating the system, lubrication of critical parts, and the proper vacuum levels for the five degrees of expression. Lastly, there is a listing of the function of all 98 holes in the trackerbar -the trackerbar scale. 30 pages, 5-1/2" X 8-1/2".
Classic Player Piano Manual (CL-1): $19.50
(Only available in PDF format)
Reprints of the original Classic player mechanism. Similar in many respects to the Universal made in California in the 70's and early 80's. Contains basic operating instructions, electrical schematics, trouble-shooting procedures, parts layout, and servicing information. Modern players bearing the name 'Baldwin', 'Wurlitzer', Casino, Story & Clark, and Heritage, which were made by Classic, also have a nearly identical player mechanism.
Coinola Catalog (A-271): $11.50
Coinola Catalog picturing and describing the Ten Coin-Operated pianos. Measures 3-5/8" x 6-1/2". Pictures
in B/W, twenty pages. Reprinted by Vestal Press.
Coinola Poster (A-151): $12.50
Coinola advertising poster, 18" X 24", showing the "orchestrion cabinet" which was rolled in front of an ordinary piano to utilize the keyboard. From 'Operators Piano Co.', Chicago, IL. Suitable for framing. (click here to see larger pictures)
Duo-Art Reproducing Piano Service Manual (C-3): $15.00 (PDF File Only)
A reprint of the 43 page 1927 manual on servicing the Duo-Art reproducing mechanism.
Contains illustrations and tubing diagrams for the various expression components. (Does not have an overall tubing schematic. See: Duo-Art Grand Tubing Schematics below.) This manual also covers most of the devices
found in the Pianola and Themodist, which are less complex versions of the
Duo-Art Reproducing system. However, it does not contain information about the foot-pumps. Also see "Pianola Instruction Booklets" below. Available in PDF format for $15.00. Specify "PDF" in the Comments Box when ordering.
Duo-Art Service Manual No.1 Preliminary Instruction Pamphlet (R-32): $15.75
This reference covers the Upright Duo-Art "Pianola" piano. It contains the 'Tubing & Schematic Chart' of the 1913-1918, or 'Early Model' reproducing system, a 'Diagram of the Duo-Art Expression Control, and a 'Diagram Showing Operations of Pedal Electric Duo-Art Controls'. It also explains the operation of the Dynamic Step Control, the Accompaniment Control, the Theme Control, the Manual Control, and a section on 'How To Test and Adjust the Duo-Art' (all components). Also see "Pianola Instruction Booklets" below.
Duo-Art Reproducing Piano (Player-Care Collection) (D-34a): $29.95 (on data DVD)
The collection, on a data DVD, of all the Duo-Art reproducing piano diagrams and reprints that are known to exist. Contains the 1925 and 1927 Service Manuals, the Grand Tubing Chart, the Complete Listing of Duo-Art rolls, the highly illustrated 1921 Catalog of Duo-Art rolls, Rebuilding the Duo-Art, Themodist Tubing Diagrams, Half D-A tubing diagrams, English D-A function switch diagram, the Presto Buyer's Guide of 1926, and much, much more.
Duo-Art, Supplement to 1927 Service Manual (D-24): $7.00
Covers the Combination Foot Impelled and Electric Duo-Art Expression Box.
Duo-Art Grand Tubing Schematics (C-7p): $17.50 (Available in PDF format only)
Two large copies of the original blueprints that were drawn in 1956 which show the tubing layout of the 1925 Steinway Duo-Art Grand. One drawing shows the layout of the underside of the piano. The other shows the topside of the piano. They measure 42" x 30" (underside) and 30" x 24" (topside). These diagrams have been meticulously repaired to bring out all of the details of the original diagrams. Print size is virtually identical to the original diagrams.
Duo-Art Grand Tubing Schematics (C-7a): $9.25
Virtually identical to the above diagrams, but on a single 8-1/2" x 11" 110 lb. piece of paper that's been laminated. Good for carrying around on the job or for quick reference anywhere. Easy to read if you have good eye sight. Legible, but very small print.
Duo-Art: "How To Play the Electric Duo-Art" (R-30): $9.25 (PDF file format only)
This is a 16-page User's Guide. Using good diagrams, it explains how to use all of the controls in the grand and upright models. From lifting the lid to install the music roll to an explanation of the expression markings found on the music rolls of the day, this reference is well written and easy to understand.
Duo-Art Tubing and Schematic Chart (R-29): $9.50
This is a large 22" x 17" diagram of the circa 1913-1918 'early model' Duo-Art reproducing system. It comes from the David Saul Collection and was redrawn by A.M.R. Co. This diagram is also found in a smaller version in the Duo-Art Service Manual No. 1 and the Duo-Art Collection. This reference makes a nice wall/shop chart.
Duo-Art Rebuilding Guide (PDF File Only) (C-7b): $15.00
Rebuilding the Duo-Art Reproducing Piano Mechanism, by Michael L Kitner. Reprint of the Vestal Press Technical Series, No 5. Covers every aspect of rebuilding the Duo-Art mechanism. 20 pages, in PDF format only.
Duo-Art Test Roll (with Instructions Printed On The Roll) (DA-TR): $38.95
(Temporarily Out of Stock)
(Click on picture to see larger images)
A necessary tool for anyone who is rebuilding a Duo-Art Reproducing System. The roll tests every aspect of the system, including (but not limited to), note repetition, all expression levels, bass and treble theme, sustain pedal, and hammer rail lift (or action shift).
Duo-Art Logic Chart (T-9): $17.50 (in PDF Format)
(This is a portion of the reference)
This is from the VP Technical Series No.9. Redrawn in 1977 by Gloria Scott. Used in conjunction with the 1925 Duo-Art Grand Tubing Chart (#C-7). For those who really want to understand the logic behind the Duo-Art Reproducing Player Action and how it is able to function, this reference is a must. Extremely well detailed. Only available in PDF format. The print size is 34.2" by 20.5".
Euphona Maintenance Diagram (E-1): $19.00
Specifically made by The Cable Company for the Euphona player action, this color diagram pinpoints all 26 of the adjustments, oiling points, and screws that need to be removed to take out the upper and lower portions of the mechanism. There are also short explanations labeled: To Tune This Piano; To Remove Player Action; To Remove Bellows; To Oil This Player; If The Roll Sticks; and If Tempo Lever Sticks. Measures 11" x 14". If requested, the diagram will be rolled and shipped in a mailing tube for an additional $4.50. Otherwise it will be folded and shipped in a Priority Flat Rate envelope.
Flexitone Soloist Player (R-35): $16.00
Player action used by Foster-Armstrong, a division of American Piano Co., Rochester, NY. Essentially, this manual describes the hand-operated expression system for playing 88 note rolls. It has the hammer-lift divided into three sections instead of the normal two. 16 pages, 5-3/4" X 8". Very informative, relatively simple design, rather ingenious.
Gulbransen Service Manual (PDF Format only) (B-38p): $9.95
(glued type stack). Shows the automatic tracking device and adjustments of the friction wheel. Diagrams and pages of suggestions for general trouble-shooting.
"Fishing-Pole" Tracker Service (R-99p): $6.00
'Fishing-Pole' tracker device, as used exclusively in some late model Gulbransen player actions. Originally issued in October of 1921
as a single 9" X 12" page. Now only available as a 23 Megabyte high resolution PDF file. Click here to see a side-by-side comparison of a portion the original file and the new file.
Gulbransen Shop Chart (G-1): $12.00 (PDF format only)
This is the large Shop Chart that Gulbransen published. Originally, it was 29" X 24". The print size of the PDF file is 46" X 39". It shows all of the adjustments and explains the Theory of Operation. Nice to have around for quick reference. Much work has gone into cleaning and repairing the printed paper document that was formerly available from Player Piano Co. To see the difference in the quality of one of the six graphics, click here.
Gulbransen Collection (DVD Only) (G-COL): $38.90
For those who want "everything" I have concerning the Gulbransen player mechanism, here it is. Over 3.1 gigabytes of files including all of the Gulbransen references listed above plus over 300 other files that I've collected or created in my career. They include the Gulbransen Shop Chart, various patents, rebuilding procedures, adjustment procedures, lots of pictures, and a short video about the tracking mechanism. Only available on one data DVD. File formats include .jpg, .bmp, .tif, .pdf, .mpg, .txt, .gif, .html, .rtf, .wpd and .zip
Hardman (PlayOTone-AutoTone) Shop Chart (J-4): $16.25
This is a Shop Chart from the 1920's. As stated on the chart, it is "A Practical Treatise on the Care, Adjustment, and Repair of the Various Working Parts" of the two systems. The original chart was 25" X 38" and it shows all of the adjustments and explains the Theory of Operation for both the PlayOTone and the AutoTone systems. These were the player systems that Hardman used in their player pianos. It was a copy of the original 'blueprint' chart that was provided to dealers and technicians. As such, the gray-scale graphics aren't the greatest, but the information is very accurate and the graphics are fairly legible. Available only in PDF format.
Hobart M. Cable "Style H" (H-1): $11.75 (PDF Format Only)
Pneumatic Player Mechanism and Descriptive Catalog of "Style H" Player Pianos by Hobart M. Cable. This 33 page reprint even lists all of the tiny metal parts that are used to make the entire system. Very complete. In virtually every aspect, this action is identical to the Standard Player Action. It even has the "S" insignia on the foot treadles. Scanned at 300 dpi for maximum clarity. (Graphics leave something to be desired.)
Janssen Service Manual (J-1): $15.00 (PDF Format)
Janssen player with Welte-Mignon player action, service manual for Model WM-I. Pertains to player made in the 1960's, with no connection with Welte-Mignon - the reproducing system. 24 Pgs. Available in PDF format only.
Kimball Service Manual (PDF file) (B-53): $15.00
Kimball Service Manual for players built in the teens and 20's. This manual covers the model made in 1915 and is the only manual that Kimball produced for their early systems. This model has the vents accessible for cleaning by removing individual screw plugs which are in one row immediately below the spool box shelf. The roll motor governor is mounted under the key bed to the right of the foot pump bellows. The drive sprocket on the roll transmission frame is at the bottom of the frame. A 'CD' is also available for an additional $4.95. It contains the more than 80 high-resolution images used to create the PDF file and a number of the patents we've been able to locate. Please type "Plus CD" in the Comments Box when ordering if you also want the CD.
Kimball Model 'A' Service Manual (K-4): $37.00
Kimball player piano Model 'A' service manual (1st printed in Sept 1963), includes how it works, electrical schematics, trouble-shooting guide and illustrated parts breakdown. Over 70 pages 8-1/2" x 11".
Kimball Model 'C' Service Manual (K-2): $15.00 (In PDF Format Only)
NOTE: This manual has been converted to a PDF format. It is no longer available in paper form.
Kimball player piano Model 'C' service manual (made in the 1970's), including electrical schematics, trouble-shooting guide and illustrated parts breakdown. Also includes procedure for re-gluing the plastic valve blocks to the tiers. NOTE: The only difference between the Model 'C' and Model 'D' is a diode in the Tempo Control circuit.
Kimball Model 'D' Service Manual (K-5): $28.00
Kimball player piano Model 'D' service manual (made in the 1970's), including electrical schematics, trouble-shooting guide and illustrated parts breakdown. Also includes procedure for gluing the plastic valve blocks to the tiers. See NOTE above.
Kimball Model 'E' Service Manual (K-1): $28.00
Kimball player piano Model 'E' service manual (made in the mid 70's-80's), including electrical schematics, trouble-shooting guide and illustrated parts breakdown. PDF manual available for $18.00. Specify 'PDF File' when ordering.
Kimball Model 'F' Service Manual (in PDF Format) (K-3): $15.00
Kimball player piano Model 'F' service manual (made in the 1980's), including electrical schematics, trouble-shooting guide and illustrated parts breakdown. Scanned at 600 DPI for excellent resolution (75+ megabyte file).
Kohler & Campbell (J-5): $14.95 -(PDF Format Only)
Kohler & Campbell player made in the 1960's, called "The Autopiano". Factory service manual. 21 pages, with electrical schematic. The system is known to have also been installed in pianos bearing the name "Lemac". (Not the same as the 1920's Autopiano manual.)
Lester Service Manual (B-34): $6.50
Tuner's (Vest Pocket Edition) Book, in simple English. As it says in the Preface, "The object of this little booklet is to familiarize our dealers, tuners and customers with the component parts of the action in order that it may be not only easily cared for but also easily adjusted." The booklet does not contain any information about repair or restoration. 16 pages, 2-3/8" x 5-5/8" (font size 8pt).
Orchestrion Builder's Manual and Pneumatics Handbook (CB-CD): $24.95
(CD Version - in PDF Format)
The most comprehensive book about valves and pneumatics ever written. Unlike most books that tell you what 'To Do', this book also tells you what 'Not To Do', and then goes on to explain why! Written by Craig Brougher, noted author and master craftsman, this book is a must for anyone who is considering building or rebuilding a pneumatic operated device of any kind or type. This 238-page reference is loaded with well over a hundred illustrations and every topic is explained in great detail. No stone is left unturned. I highly recommend this reference, and have a copy that is quite worn!
March 15, 2021: Four signed and numbered copies of the original book are available-click here.
Otto Higel Collection (OH-CD): $24.95
(Data CD - various file formats)
This data CD contains the only tubing diagram known to exist for the Heintzman player with the Otto Higel player action. It was drawn by John A Tuttle after communicating with various individuals over a number of years. The CD also contains numerous pictures (some with annotations) of various components in the Higel action with an emphasis on determining the purpose and tubing of that component. Also, the CD contains all of the patents that have been found which relate to the Higel action.
Peerless Player Piano Action (R-110): $24.00
This 1922 Peerless player action is really rare, and you'll need this book when you find one! 30 pages, slick paper, 4-1/2" X 6-1/2" size. Well illustrated. (Note - No connection with the Peerless name in coin-operated pianos.)
PianoCorder "Ragtime" Coin-op System (PC-1): $29.50
This manual contains all known information related to the PC-1145 player system, which
uses both a cassette and an 8-track player. Complete with electrical schematics and
circuit board diagrams of the box on the left side of the instrument. Spiral bound, 8-1/2" X 11", 26 pages.
PianoCorder Owners Manual (PC-3): $23.00
This is a professionally produced copy of the original "Owners Manual" that was produced by Marantz for the P-100 and P-100M system. This is NOT a technical manual. Spiral bound, 8-1/2" X 11", 18 pages.
PianoCorder/Marantz Reproducing System (PC-2): $59.50
This manual contains the Circuit Description and Schematic Diagrams for the P-100, P-100M, P-101, P-101M, P-200, PR-200, PR-201. Written for use by Qualified Technicians Only. 8-1/2" X 11", 100 pages.
Pianola Instruction Booklets (R-149): $20.50
Three booklets written as a 'User's Guide' for the operation of the various controls found in the 1920's style upright Aeolian Pianola player piano. These are NOT technical manuals.
Pianotist: Directions for Care and Use (B-31): $10.00
This short pamphlet (4-pages) covers directions for using the very rare Pianotist player system. To my knowledge, this is one of, if not the first, player system that was installed inside a piano. The roller mechanism is contained in a drawer that mounts under the keybed in this upright piano.
Player Piano Servicing & Rebuilding (A-1): $38.50
This 216 page book by Art Reblitz is the finest reference book on the planet dealing with the repair, rebuilding and servicing of pneumatic player pianos. Highly illustrated, with individual sections on 30 of the more common foot pump player actions, as well as reproducing systems. Also contains a complete index, glossary of terms, and tracker bar scales. Every rebuilder and novice should have this book on their shelf. Originally published in 1985.
Practical Guide for the Regulation of Player Piano Mechanism (B-42): $18.50 (PDF Format)
This 22 page service manual is for the early Standard Pneumatic Action with the "A" frame type of tracker mechanism. It is also useful for the early 65-note Auto Pneumatic Action and the Hobart M Cable action. It features the "double trackerbar" which plays both 65 and 88-note music rolls, but is also very useful for actions with a single trackerbar as well.
Pratt-Read Model "P" (D-23): $14.25
Pratt-Read Model "P" Reproducer (Recordo). 1920's blueprint and manual. Twelve pages 8-1/2" X 5-1/2". (Recommend 'Style 72' manual in addition to this manual.)
Pratt-Read Style 72 Players (B-4): $16.50
Covers the Model "M" Foot Expression Action, the Model "P" Upright Reproducing Action, and the Model "PC" Combination Reproducing Action. The Reproducing Action is a Recordo-Type mechanism. Twenty pages - Very well illustrated with excellent grey-tone graphics. This reference is only available in PDF format (148+MB).
Pratt-Read A Guide to its Mechanism and Regulation (B-58p): $18.00
Basically, this reference covers how the mechanism works and how it is regulated. Information is presented in the form of 'Articles to the Tuner and Repairman'. It is my recommendation that this reference and the one directly below be purchased as a set. This reference is only available in a PDF format (95MB).
Pratt-Read Its Mechanism and Regulation (B-59p): $18.00
Basically, this reference covers all of the variations of the various devices in the system. More attention is paid to the peripheral devices and expression controls, i.e., tracking device, soft controls, sustain device, soloist pneumatic, floating hammer rail, tempo control box, and exhauster assembly. It is my recommendation that this reference and the one directly above be purchased as a set. This reference is only available in a PDF format (101MB).
Presto Buyers' Guide of 1926 (P-1): $13.95 (CD ONLY)
An 87-page reference book designed to aid buyers of Pianos, Player-Pianos, and Reproducing Pianos in selecting an instrument. The reference is broken down into Three Parts. I. Instruments of Established Name and Character. II. Instruments bearing Special Names or Trade Marks. III. Manufacturers of Piano and Player Pianos. "All preceded by Chapters on Piano Building and Buying designed for the guidance of prospective purchasers." The work covers how pianos are graded, how to buy an instrument, and how to care for the instrument. The importance of this reference lies in the fact that it gives detailed characteristics of more than 100 of the top name pianos ever manufactured. And considering that there have been more than 10,000 piano companies, knowing which ones are in the Top 100 can be very valuable when deciding where to spend your money. A valuable reference which I have used for over 35 years.
Principles of Player Action Operation (P-3p): $17.95 (PDF File Format)
This is the 3rd Edition of the service manual that was produced by the Standard Player Action Company. Published in April, 1925, it's the only manual they made that covers both the Double and the Single valve actions. It also covers the two most common Exhauster assemblies (that produce the vacuum). The images used to create the PDF file were scanned from an original manual, not a reprint, at 300 dpi to insure excellent quality. As well as covering how the system works and the changes they made to the system after the first manual was produced in 1917, this manual also covers such things as 'Care of the Primary and Secondary Valves', 'Regulating the Primary Valves', 'Cleaning the Bleeds', 'Replacing Pouches', 'Recovering Pneumatics', and 'Miscellaneous Repairs'. The down-loadable PDF file is 140MB in size.
Recordo Compilation data DVD (R-2): $16.95
This is a compilation of everything we've ever found about the Recordo system. It contains all of the references listed below plus numerous pictures and many other pieces of information about the system. Available only as a data DVD (2.53 GB of data).
Recordo 'Aria-Divina' Tubing Schematic (D-7): $17.00
Aria-Divina Tubing Schematic for the Type "C" Recordo electric grand made by Schulz.
Recordo 'Electora' Tubing Schematic (B-22): $10.25
'Electora Recordo System' made by Motor Player Corp, Chicago, IL. A name tag reading 'Electora Player Piano' was on the electric vacuum motor. A distinguishing characteristic of the Expression Box is the presence of Four silver knobs marked PP, P, MF, and F and a valve block on top of the Box that has nine nipples. Also available in PDF and JPG formats.
Recordo-Operation of the.... (R-1): $10.25 (Limited Stock)
For Use with the Recordo Rolls. The Operation of the Standard Reproducing Grand Action. Mainly addresses the general operation of the Recordo system, 'Works in a Drawer'. Includes pictures of the Expression Box and the General Tubing Diagram. Eight Pages, 8-1/2" X 5-1/2".
Recordo Tubing Schematic (B-77): $7.25
Tubing schematic for the Recordo expression made by the Starr Piano Co.
Recordo - Standard Grand Action (PDF Format )(B-26): $9.50
"The Operation of the Standard Reproducing Grand Action" - For use with Recordo Rolls. This manual does not go into the principles of player piano actions. Instead, it explains in great detail the operation of the Record-type expression mechanism known as the Standard. It also has an excellent tubing diagram of all the components that are connected to the expression box and the trackerbar.
Recordo/Wurlitzer Grand/w Apollo (D-25): $11.00
Wurlitzer Grand with Apollo. Tubing diagram 17" X 22". Suitable for framing.
Reproduco Organs (B-11): $10.25
A short 8-page pamphlet containing "Instructions and List of Parts". This was one of the first player organs that used an electrically driven roll motor and an electric blower box, which was located outside of the instrument. Only available in PDF format.
Schulz Service Manual 1922 (B-29p): $15.00
Schulz Service Manual, 1922. Shows automatic roll-centering device having discs which ride inside the roll flanges.
Schulz Player Mechanism Guide 1915 (B-61p): $15.00
Practical Guide to the Construction, Regulation and Care of the M. Schulz Co. Player mechanism. For the use of Tuners, Repairers and Practical Men only. Click on image to see more information.
Schulz Compilation DVD (B-29d): $19.95
This Data DVD contains all of the information about the Schulz player mechanisms. It includes but is not limited to the two service manuals, many of the Patents, Rebuilding Procedures, and numerous pictures. Files are in various common formats, i.e., PDF, JPG, BMP.
Simplex Service Manual (B-8): $29.50
This is the manual that was reproduced by American Piano Supply Co. (APSCO). Very comprehensive service manual covering the Style 'B', 'B' Special, Style 'F' and 'F'
Special. Complete with 'Do's and 'Don'ts', maintenance aspects and correct operation.
Well illustrated, forty pages, 5-1/2" X 8-1/2" in size. Also a newly revised and improved manual is now available in PDF format for $19.00. Specify PDF in the Comments Box when ordering.
Simplex Automatic Tracker (SIM-1): $6.75
A guide to the operation of the Simplex Automatic Tracking mechanism. Excellent diagram shows all of the parts used in the device, and Illustrated Parts breakdown names and numbers each piece, four pages, 8-1/2" X 11" in size.
Simplex Reproducing Player Action (B-35p): $19.50 (PDF Format)
This is an original Vestal Press copy of the manual produced by Simplex Player Action Co., in Worchester, MA. This is an 'expression' piano which uses the Recordo roll format. Very detailed manual covering the 'Works in a Drawer' unit for grand pianos and uprights. Excellent grey-scale graphics. Complete with tubing diagrams, adjustments for the reproducing action, and information about servicing the system. This manual became available in 2010. Available only in a PDF Format.
....Standard Action Service Manual: $24.00
(The paper version is no longer available. See below for CD Version)
(Principles of Player Piano Operation). There were 140 different brands of pianos which used this, the most common player action. It can be identified by the "S" on the patent plate or pedal mats; also, gear attached to the right take-up spool flange on most models. (See also Hobart M. Cable manual and "Guide to Regulation" above.)
Standard Double-Valve Action Service Manual (STD-1): $17.95 (Only available on CD!)
Produced in 1917, this 36-page reference has some of the finest gray-scale graphics I've ever had the pleasure to view. They are so good that I decided NOT to have the reference printed on paper. Instead, each page was scanned at a resolution of 150 DPI and a variety of electronic files were produced. This reference is ONLY available on a CD that I produced. It contains all of the original scanned files as well as an Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) file and a huge Word Perfect (.wpd) file. The beauty of these program files is that each page can be magnified to over 200% without losing the clarity of the graphics, making it possible to easily see details that are often difficult to see with the naked eye in the original paper manual. Also, through the magic of 'image mapping', you can access super-high resolution images by clicking on any image inside a web page. These images were scanned at 300 DPI, and they are twice as clear as the images in the individual pages. All files can also be accessed individually in 'My Computer'. Or the pages can be viewed as web pages. The CD is designed to automatically open your default web browser when the CD is put into your CD Drive. Lastly, if the web browser is connected to the Internet, you can also access everything at Player-Care from the links on the main default web page. (Also contains the 'Standard Action Q & A' reference.)
... Standard Action Q & A (B-18): $8.95 (PDF File Only)
Question and Answers - Standard Player Action (Applicable to both the Single and Double valve actions.) A total of 213 questions like: No. 179 - How is the secondary valve button adjusted to the pouch - what distance do you allow between the pouch and the button? Answers are below each question.
... Standard Reproducing Grand Action (B-26): $10.25 (In PDF Format Only)
For Use with the Recordo Rolls. The "Operation of the Standard Reproducing Grand Action". Mainly addresses the general operation of the Recordo system, 'Works in a Drawer'. Includes pictures of the Expression Box and the General Tubing Diagram. Eight Pages, 8-1/2" X 6-1/2". This is the same Recordo expression device found in the Simplex Reproducing Player Action system. Excellent grayscale graphics.
Starr Service Manual (D-20): $18.25
Reprint of 1923, type A-1, with fifteen 8-1/2" X 11" pages. Graphics leave much to be desired, but text is quite legible.
Story & Clark Service Manual (B-49p): $15.00
Story & Clark Service Manual, 1924 reprint. Forty pages, 8-1/2" X 11". Covers adjustment and regulation of the system including suggested repairs for certain ailments. Only available in a PDF file format.
Strauch Bros. Service Manual (S-1): $12.95 (PDF Format Only)
Strauch Bros. Pneumatic Player Actions manual. Very detailed explanations of all pneumatic components with accompanying graphics. Originally printed in 1925. Excellent illustrated parts breakdown section showing every single part in the entire player mechanism and piano actions (grand and upright). Very interesting pictures of workers performing various tasks inside the factory add an interesting touch to this manual. This is a "How it Works" manual and not a "How to Fix It" treatise.
Universal Service Manual (U-1): $22.00
Made during the 1960's and 1970's, the 'Universal', which was made in California, was the first player piano to use synthetic 'Perflex' pouches. (The earliest of these 'modern' players was named the 'American'.) Also, it was the first player piano to have an all-aluminum stack with rubber gaskets and neoprene valve facings. Thought not to exist, an original service manual was recently located. To it has been added the electronic schematics discovered by an engineer at Story & Clark, making this the most complete manual available for this player system. Complete with a short Troubleshooting section and Illustrated Parts Breakdown. It does not contain information about the Theory of Operation or Rebuilding. 8-1/2" x 11", 20 pages.
Universal/Classic Service Manual (USM-1): $75.00
This Universal Service Manual was copyrighted in 2009 by Bob Stanoszek. It contains Six Sections that cover Rebuilding, Supplies, Adjustments, Service, Tubing, and the 'Classic' version of the player mechanism. While a majority of the information came from the original Universal and Classic service manuals, this manual also covers a number of the more common problems found in the two systems. The reference also has comprehensive listings of all of the parts and where they can be purchased. This reference is now part of my personal technical library. 8-1/2" x 11", 90 pages.
Universal Nickelodeon Diagrams (USM-N): $9.95
There are two tubing diagrams. Very detailed. Available as a 1.7 megabyte PDF file which contains both diagrams. Suitable for printing on 11"-17" stock. (The paper version is no longer available.)
Welte-Mignon Player Unit (for Janssen Players) (J-2): $20.00
Janssen Player with the Welte-Mignon player action, service manual for Model WM-2. Same as the Janssen manual
for the WM-1, but a later model with the controls at the left side of the spool box. 13 pages, 8-1/2" X 11".
Welte-Mignon Licensee & Original Tubing Diagram and Regulating Procedure (PDF File) (CB-W): $19.95
After years of working on the Welte-Mignon Reproducing system, and having dealt with all of the inconsistencies in all of the literature concerning the system, Craig Brougher decided it was time to produce information that really works all the time. He created a brand new tubing diagram and a detailed procedure for regulating the system that is better than anything else that's available. When I finished reading everything, I told Craig, "Now it finally makes sense!"
Welte-Mignon Tubing Schematic (PDF File Only) (C-8p): $9.95
Tubing schematic for both the upright and the grand. This is the "Licensee" version-the most common type of Welte-Mignon. Can be distinguished from other reproducing pianos by the tracker bar: All openings are the same size and have a pair of staggered tracking holes to read the edges of the music roll. Aside from these 'tracking' holes, the regular line of ports will total 98.
Welte "Original" Service Manual (C-20): $20.00
Upright and Grand. 24 pages. Different from the Kohler & Campbell built "Licensee" by Autopiano. This player action uses the standard 11-1/4" wide Welte-Mignon music roll, but construction of the mechanism was different and was built in Poughkeepsie, NY. To distinguish from the Licensee version-it should have a chain pulling over a roller on one of the expression pneumatics.
Welte-Vorsetzer (R-58): $15.00
Welte-Vorsetzer Manual, 24 pages. 4-1/2" X 5-1/2". All printed in German. This is some kind of manual for the "Red Paper" roll push-up player. However, there are two clear photos: front and rear view of the mechanism.
Welte-Mignon (Licensee) (C-4): $14.00 (PDF format)
Welte-Mignon Tubing Blueprints, in PDF format (600 dpi 5737x4426 13 MB) . One for the Upright model and one for the Grand model. File can be used to print excellent shop charts or for framing and hanging. Extremely well detailed, including the location of all adjustments (referenced).
Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano (Auto-Deluxe) (D-4): $24.00
How to Test and Regulate the Auto-Deluxe Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano. Reprint of the original Service Manual. 48 pages, 5" X 7". Includes instructions for using the Test Roll. (Licensee reproducing piano).
Welte-Mignon Test Roll (Auto-Deluxe) (D-TR): $39.95
Used to Test and Regulate the Auto-Deluxe Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano. Includes instructions on a separate sheet for using the Test Roll. (Licensee reproducing piano). Ships in USPS Medium Flat-Rate Box for $15.55 (within US). Overseas $46.85 (to most countries).
Welte-Mignon Compilation DVD (W-DVD): $24.95
After numerous requests, we have put together a data DVD that contains every Welte reference that is know to exist. It even contains the 'Welte-Mignon Licensee & Original Tubing Diagram and Regulating Procedure' by Craig Brougher, which sells for $19.95. Purchased individually, all of these references would cost over $100.00. There are also historical references in the DVD that aren't listed at Player-Care (which focuses on technical references).
Wurlitzer Model 1203 (W-1): $16.00 (PDF Format)
This Service Manual is very complete. It has all the schematics and parts lists as well
as the Theory of Operation and the Sequence of Operation. There is an excellent
Troubleshooting Guide that covers a wide variety of problems. There are also sections on Repair
and maintenance and all of the Technical Notes issued by Wurlitzer through 1980. 38 pages. Only available in PDF format.
Wurlitzer Model 1202 (W-2): $17.25 (PDF Format)
This Service Manual is very complete. It has all the schematics and parts lists as well
as the Theory of Operation and the Sequence of Operation. There is a very good
Troubleshooting Guide that covers most normal problems. There are also sections on Repair
and maintenance. Only available in PDF format, 47 pages.
Wurlitzer Model 1402 (W-3): $26.00
This Service Manual is relatively basic. It has a decent electrical diagram and covers the Theory of Operation and the Sequence of Operations. There is limited information on Repair and Maintenance. Stapled at the edges.
As per the Fair Credit Billing Act, your bank cannot hold you liable for more than $50.00 of fraudulent credit card charges. PLAYER-CARE will pay the $50.00 if the unauthorized use of your card resulted from a purchase made through our site. We are so confident of the security measures we've put in place, we'll also pay you an additional $25 just for the inconvenience!
Disclaimer: Player-Care is not responsible for the printing of these references. If you find that a particular graphic is not good enough for your needs, we will attempt to find one that is more suitable.